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SDK Multiplataforma en C

Bricks

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Briks es una imitación muy simplista del videojuego Atari Breakout, que nos permitirá realizar una introducción al mundo de las Aplicaciones síncronas. Cualquier aplicación en tiempo real debe estar constantemente actualizándose intervenga o no el usuario. El código fuente está en la caperta /src/demo/bricks de la distribución del SDK.

  • Utiliza osmain_sync para iniciar una aplicación síncrona, indicando un intervalo y función callback de actualización. NAppGUI lanzará periódicamente eventos de tiempo que actualizarán el programa.
  • Captura del juego bricks, imitación del Atari Breakout.
    Figura 1: Videojuego bricks en Windows, macOS y Linux.

Esta aplicación está dirigida por dos eventos (Figura 2). Por un lado el movimiento del slider, que puede producirse en cualquier momento (evento asíncrono), y actualizará la posición del jugador. Por otro un evento síncrono producido por osmain_sync cada 40 milisegundos y será notificado a través de i_update() para que se actualice el estado del juego y la vista gráfica.

Gráfico que muestra dos eventos, uno síncrono y otro asíncrono.
Figura 2: Eventos síncronos y asíncronos.
Listado 1: demo/bricks/bricks.c
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/* Simplistic Breakout-like game */

#include "nappgui.h"

#define NUM_BRICKS 40

typedef struct _brick_t Brick;
typedef struct _app_t App;

struct _brick_t
{
    real32_t x;
    real32_t y;
    uint8_t color;
    bool_t is_visible;
};

struct _app_t
{
    bool_t is_running;
    Brick bricks[NUM_BRICKS];
    color_t color[4];
    real32_t brick_width;
    real32_t player_pos;
    real32_t ball_x;
    real32_t ball_y;
    V2Df ball_dir;
    real32_t ball_speed;
    Cell *button;
    Slider *slider;
    View *view;
    Window *window;
};

/*---------------------------------------------------------------------------*/

static const real32_t i_BALL_RADIUS = .03f;
static const real32_t i_BRICK_HEIGHT = .03f;
static const real32_t i_BRICK_SEPARATION = .005f;
static const uint32_t i_BRICKS_PER_ROW = 10;
static const uint32_t i_NUM_ROWS = 4;

/*---------------------------------------------------------------------------*/

static void i_OnDraw(App *app, Event *e)
{    
    const EvDraw *params = event_params(e, EvDraw);
    uint32_t i = 0;

    draw_clear(params->ctx, color_rgb(102, 153, 26));
    draw_line_color(params->ctx, kCOLOR_BLACK);

    for (i = 0; i < NUM_BRICKS; ++i)
    {
        if (app->bricks[i].is_visible == TRUE)
        {
            real32_t x = app->bricks[i].x * params->width;
            real32_t y = app->bricks[i].y * params->height;
            real32_t width = app->brick_width * params->width;
            real32_t height = i_BRICK_HEIGHT * params->height;
            draw_fill_color(params->ctx, app->color[app->bricks[i].color]);
            draw_rect(params->ctx, ekFILLSK, x, y, width, height);
        }
    }
    
    {
        real32_t x = (app->player_pos - app->brick_width) * params->width;
        real32_t y = (1 - i_BRICK_HEIGHT - i_BRICK_SEPARATION) * params->height;
        real32_t width = 2 * app->brick_width * params->width;
        real32_t height = i_BRICK_HEIGHT * params->height;
        draw_fill_color(params->ctx, kCOLOR_BLACK);
        draw_rect(params->ctx, ekFILL, x, y, width, height);
    }

    {
        real32_t x = app->ball_x * params->width;
        real32_t y = app->ball_y * params->height;
        real32_t rad = i_BALL_RADIUS * params->width;
        draw_fill_color(params->ctx, kCOLOR_WHITE);
        draw_circle(params->ctx, ekFILL, x, y, rad);
    }
}

/*---------------------------------------------------------------------------*/

static void i_OnSlider(App *app, Event *e)
{
    const EvSlider *params = event_params(e, EvSlider);
    app->player_pos = params->pos;
}

/*---------------------------------------------------------------------------*/

static void i_OnStart(App *app, Event *e)
{
    unref(e);
    app->is_running = TRUE;
    cell_enabled(app->button, FALSE);
}

/*---------------------------------------------------------------------------*/

 static Panel *i_panel(App *app)
 {
    Panel *panel = panel_create();
    Layout *layout = layout_create(1, 4);
    View *view = view_create();
    Slider *slider = slider_create();
    Label *label = label_create();
    Button *button = button_push();
    view_size(view, s2df(258, 344));
    view_OnDraw(view, listener(app, i_OnDraw, App)); 
    slider_OnMoved(slider, listener(app, i_OnSlider, App));
    label_text(label, "Use the slider!");
    button_text(button, "Start");
    button_OnClick(button, listener(app, i_OnStart, App));    
    layout_view(layout, view, 0, 0);
    layout_slider(layout, slider, 0, 1);
    layout_label(layout, label, 0, 2);
    layout_button(layout, button, 0, 3);
    layout_vexpand(layout, 0);
    layout_vmargin(layout, 0, 10);
    layout_vmargin(layout, 2, 10);
    layout_margin(layout, 10);
    panel_layout(panel, layout);
    app->view = view;
    app->slider = slider;
    app->button = layout_cell(layout, 0, 3);
    return panel;
}

/*---------------------------------------------------------------------------*/

static void i_init_game(App *app)
{
    real32_t hoffset;
    Brick *brick = NULL;
    uint32_t j, i;
    
    app->color[0] = color_rgb(255, 0, 0);
    app->color[1] = color_rgb(0, 255, 0);
    app->color[2] = color_rgb(0, 0, 255);
    app->color[3] = color_rgb(0, 255, 255);

    hoffset = i_BRICK_SEPARATION;
    brick = app->bricks;

    app->is_running = FALSE;
    app->brick_width = (1 - ((real32_t)i_BRICKS_PER_ROW + 1) * i_BRICK_SEPARATION) / (real32_t)i_BRICKS_PER_ROW;

    for (j = 0; j < i_NUM_ROWS; ++j)
    {
        real32_t woffset = i_BRICK_SEPARATION;
        
        for (i = 0; i < i_BRICKS_PER_ROW; ++i)
        {
            brick->x = woffset;
            brick->y = hoffset;
            brick->is_visible = TRUE;
            brick->color = (uint8_t)j;
            woffset += app->brick_width + i_BRICK_SEPARATION;
            brick++;
        }
        
        hoffset += i_BRICK_HEIGHT + i_BRICK_SEPARATION;
    }
    
    app->player_pos = slider_get_value(app->slider);
    app->ball_x = .5f;
    app->ball_y = .5f;
    app->ball_dir.x = .3f;
    app->ball_dir.y = -.1f;
    app->ball_speed = .6f;
    v2d_normf(&app->ball_dir);
}

/*---------------------------------------------------------------------------*/

static void i_OnClose(App *app, Event *e)
{
    osapp_finish();
    unref(app);
    unref(e);
}

/*---------------------------------------------------------------------------*/

static App *i_create(void)
{
    App *app = heap_new0(App);
    Panel *panel = i_panel(app);
    app->window = window_create(ekWNSRES, &panel);
    window_origin(app->window, v2df(200, 200));
    window_title(app->window, "Bricks - A 2D Game");
    window_OnClose(app->window, listener(app, i_OnClose, App));
    window_show(app->window);
    i_init_game(app);
    return app;
}

/*---------------------------------------------------------------------------*/

static void i_destroy(App **app)
{
    window_destroy(&(*app)->window);
    heap_delete(app, App);
}

/*---------------------------------------------------------------------------*/

static bool_t i_collision(Brick *brick, real32_t brick_width, real32_t ball_x, real32_t ball_y)
{
    if (ball_x + i_BALL_RADIUS < brick->x)
        return FALSE;
    if (ball_x - i_BALL_RADIUS > brick->x + brick_width)
        return FALSE;
    if (ball_y + i_BALL_RADIUS < brick->y)
        return FALSE;
    if (ball_y - i_BALL_RADIUS > brick->y + i_BRICK_HEIGHT)
        return FALSE;
    return TRUE;
}

/*---------------------------------------------------------------------------*/

static void i_update(App *app, const real64_t prtime, const real64_t ctime)
{
    if (app->is_running == TRUE)
    {
        real32_t step = (real32_t)(ctime - prtime);
        bool_t collide;
        uint32_t i;
    
        // Update ball position
        app->ball_x += step * app->ball_speed * app->ball_dir.x;
        app->ball_y += step * app->ball_speed * app->ball_dir.y;
    
        // Collision with limits
        if (app->ball_x + i_BALL_RADIUS >= 1.f && app->ball_dir.x >= 0.f)
            app->ball_dir.x = - app->ball_dir.x;
    
        if (app->ball_x - i_BALL_RADIUS <= 0.f && app->ball_dir.x <= 0.f)
            app->ball_dir.x = - app->ball_dir.x;

        if (app->ball_y - i_BALL_RADIUS <= 0.f && app->ball_dir.y <= 0.f)
            app->ball_dir.y = - app->ball_dir.y;
    
        // Collision with bricks
        collide = FALSE;
        for (i = 0; i < NUM_BRICKS; ++i)
        {
            if (app->bricks[i].is_visible == TRUE)
            {
                if (i_collision(&app->bricks[i], app->brick_width, app->ball_x, app->ball_y) == TRUE)
                {
                    app->bricks[i].is_visible = FALSE;
                    if (collide == FALSE)
                    {
                        real32_t brick_x = app->bricks[i].x + .5f * app->brick_width;
                        app->ball_dir.x = 5.f * (app->ball_x - brick_x);
                        app->ball_dir.y = - app->ball_dir.y;
                        v2d_normf(&app->ball_dir);
                        collide = TRUE;
                    }
                }
            }
        }

        // Collision with player
        {
            Brick player;
            player.x = app->player_pos - app->brick_width;
            player.y = 1.f - i_BRICK_HEIGHT - i_BRICK_SEPARATION;
            if (i_collision(&player, 2.f * app->brick_width, app->ball_x, app->ball_y) == TRUE)
            {
                app->ball_dir.x = 5.f * (app->ball_x - app->player_pos);
                app->ball_dir.y = - app->ball_dir.y;
                v2d_normf(&app->ball_dir);
            }
        }

        // Game Over
        if (app->ball_y + i_BALL_RADIUS >= 1.f)
        {
            i_init_game(app);
            cell_enabled(app->button, TRUE);
        }
    }

    view_update(app->view);
}

/*---------------------------------------------------------------------------*/

#include "osmain.h"
osmain_sync(.04, i_create, i_destroy, i_update, "", App)
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